* 50 clues - GRAMMAR *





Libreria AVALON 2000


This book has not been written to compete either with school-textbooks, neither with SPANISH GRAMMAR books of 500 or 800 pages, aimed at University students and teachers.

This is a work directed to students and/or teachers of Primary and Secondary schools who wish to have compiled in 1 volume the numerous RULES and EXCEPTIONS - concerning Morphology and Syntax - which are "scattered" along the more than eighty lessons that may include studies of Primary and Secondary courses.

Due to the book format and number of pages this GRAMMAR provides EASY handling.

The structure and summary tables will be EASY to understand and memorize.

Because of its 40 pages about "Special Difficulties", and its 33 models of IRREGULAR verbs, you had wished to have been able to consult it long ago.

Its "INDEX" General “50 CLUES” and Alphabetical will make searching EASY.

The INDEX entitled “50 STEPS” is for structuring the teaching in 50 progressive steps from minor to greater difficulty.

The information given in the ANNEX about SPAIN will be also very useful for you all.

* LIBRERÍA Avalon 2000 *

- Tannay GARDENS -

- Tannay GARDENS -

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- ORANGE blossoms -

Castillo TEMPLARIO (Ponferrada)

Castillo TEMPLARIO (Ponferrada)
Castillo Templario * PONFERRADA (León)

lunes, 22 de septiembre de 2014

Clue 1 - NOUNS

(continuación)...           Puntos 1 - 2 - 3 - 4    (30 Agosto 2012)

5)    With certain nouns there is only a word for BOTH genders. The difference will be in the GENDER of the ARTICLE (definite or indefinite) preceding the noun. Therefore:-

Un artista =       A  male performer                        Una artista =      A  female performer
Un testigo =      A  male witness                            Una testigo =     A female witness
Un cantante =   A  male singer                              Una cantante =  A female singer

6)   As regards ANIMALS, they usually have only one GENDER  for BOTH of them:-

UNA araña =       “A female spider”   but also   “A male spider”.
UNA jirafa =        “A female giraffe”  but also    “A male giraffe”.
UNA ballena =    “A female whale”  but also    “A male whale”.

Ø On the other hand, masculine nouns may also be used for BOTH genders:-

UN tiburón =            “A male shark”       but also     “A female shark”.
UN atún     =            “A male tuna-fish”  but also     “A female tuna-fish”.
UN halcón  =           “A male hawk”        but also     “A female hawk”.
7)   Due to the fact  that nowadays many women are working on fields which previously were only developed by men, the names for careers and crafts start to be differentiated in MASCULINE and FEMENINE because of the “gender of the article” preceding them:

EL dentista  =  the male dentist                           LA dentista  =  the female dentist
EL ministro  =  the male minister                         LA ministra  =  the female minister

8)  In case that “female nouns”  derive from  “masculine nouns”, we will observe the following “endings” concerning the FEMENINE gender:-

Ø        A     :-   el marqués  (the marquis)  -  la marquesa  (the marchioness).

Ø     TRIZ  :-   un actor (an actor)  - una actriz (an actress).

Ø      INA   :-    el rey (the king)  -  la reina (the queen).

Ø      ISA   :-    el papa  (the pope)  -  la papisa  (the papess).

Ø      ESA  :-    un príncipe  (a prince)  -  una princesa  (a princess).  

þ ?    In Spanish, you may find words such as:- 

AGUA (= water) &  AZUCAR (= sugar) which belong to the FEMENINE gender, therefore their ADJECTIVES will be in the “feminine gender”:- 

agua fresca (= fresh water)  &  azucar blanca (= white sugar)

HOWEVER!  their “Definite Article” in singular will not be  “LA”  but  EL , e.g.,

EL  agua fresca   (NOT!  La agua fresca)

þ  The GENDER may indicate differences either on “shape”, “size” or “qualities”:-

UN jarro de vino (a jug for wine)                         UNA jarra de leche (a jar for milk)
UN cesto de patatas (a basket for potatos)        UNA cesta de flores  (a flower basket)
UN bolso de piel (a leather handbag)                 UNA bolsa de plástico (a plastic bag)

þ   BUT also the difference in GENDER may result in TWO different meanings, e.g.:-

UN cura        (a priest)                                          UNA cura         (a cure).
Un puerto     (a  harbour)                                      UNA puerta     (a door).
UN cuento    (a tale)                                              UNA cuenta     (an account).                           

þ  In Poetry - and for people living in sea shores and coasts -  “the sea” (el mar) is experienced as something FEMENINE … LA mar.

In certain Spanish areas, people call “the heat” = “LA calor” instead of saying “EL calor”

ART is masculine in singular… EL arte”  but  femenine in plural… LAS Bellas Artes”.*